Introduction

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In the heart of the Antilles, the Guadeloupe Archipelago Biosphere Reserve encompasses Basse-Terre Island and nearly all of Grande-Terre. Basse-Terre is home to the volcanic mountain massif La Grande Soufrière, and is surrounded by a tropical rainforest with high biodiversity.
The inlet of the Rivière salée (literally ‘salt river’) separates it from Grande-Terre, a low-lying limestone formation. To the north, between the two islands, Grand Cul-de-sac Marin Bay contains mangroves, freshwater swamp forests, and wet meadows. The Reserve’s marine section consists of seagrass beds and coral reefs, and is populated by many animal species including cetaceans. The Reserve also includes some islets (e.g. Pigeons, Fajou, Kahouanne, Tête à l'Anglais).

The wealth of the Reserve’s cultural heritage is reflected in local customs and knowledge, as well as strong artistic traditions. This wealth is drawn from important events in Guadeloupe’s history, such as the presence of the Amerindian civilizations, and the slavery era.

Administrative authorities: Guadeloupe National Park

Guadeloupe National Park and Biosphere Reserve occupy the same area and share the same management, an arrangement which aims to optimize the complementary objectives of the two networks.

 

Number of municipalities21
Population301,038
Area    247,968
RegionsGuadeloupe
DepartmentsGuadeloupe (971)
Creation date1992, revised in 2014

Territory

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carte du territoire

With an average density of over 200 inhabitants per km2, Guadeloupe Archipelago Biosphere Reserve has a relatively large population living in close proximity to nature.

Frequented by hikers, the tropical forests of Basse-Terre are home to a great diversity of tree and shrub species, high altitude shrub vegetation, and altimontane savannas and peat bogs. In addition to pressures from tourism, this forest that used to dominate the region has also been under agricultural and urban pressures.
In recognition of the richness of biodiversity in these protected areas, Guadeloupe National Park and Biosphere Reserve, established in 1989 and 1992 respectively, introduced programmes aiming to allow the wealth and fragility of these areas to be experienced in a respectful way.

The coastline of Grand Cul-de-Sac Marin and its protected islets are very popular with tourists and the local population alike, especially for water sports and activities. Like the forest areas, the coast is no stranger to high anthropogenic pressure which has led to urbanization of the environment and fragmentation of the coastal landscape. Climate change also plays a role in the degradation and erosion of the land.

The challenge for land-use planning is to achieve a balance between protection of the various protected areas and the island’s social, economic and cultural development.
The Biosphere reserve and Guadeloupe National Park are working together with many stakeholders, communities, the Conservatoire du littoral (French coastal conservation authority) and the Office national des forêts (French national board of forestry), to implement programmes which will address this challenge.

Activities  

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Le concours MaB

Ce concours de productions audiovisuelles est proposé aux collégiens et lycéens, et s'insère dans les opérations de la « Semaine de la presse à l'école ». Chaque année, les élèves proposent un film de quelques minutes présentant la Réserve de biosphère de l'archipel Guadeloupe autour d'un thème annuel du développement durable. Ces productions sont ensuite diffusées sur les chaînes télévisées et lors du festival du film de l’environnement et du développement durable de Guadeloupe : Le Terra Festival.

La réhabilitation écologique du littoral

A la demande des communes, le Parc national et la Réserve de biosphère  ont initié une  démarche de réhabilitation du littoral en partenariat avec de nombreux acteurs publics ou privés et la participation active de la population. Depuis le début de l'année 2010, cette démarche a démarré sur huit sites. Ces opérations prévoient plusieurs étapes : l'éradication des  décharges sauvages, suivies d'actions de reconstitutions d'écosystèmes . Ces actions concernent des  plantations d'arbres  et dans certains cas, la réappropriation de ces sites par les riverains, avec des aménagements de proximité ou encore la mise en place de jardins créoles. Sur ces sites, des comités de gestion ad hoc seront mis en place afin de maintenir la vocation nouvelle de ces sites une fois réhabilités.

Le Land art

Cet art contemporain qui consiste à utiliser des éléments de la nature pour créer des œuvres éphémères, renforce le lien entre homme et nature. Des ateliers sont proposés aux scolaires par l'association « Atelier du Soleil ».

Slideshow

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Chargement légende

Artistic arrangement in natural areas_Parc national de Guadeloupe Pineapple fields_Parc national de Guadeloupe The Grand Cul de Sac Marin_Anne ChopinThe mountains of  Basse-Terre_Fabien SallesWhale watching, tourism_Parc national de Guadeloupe Participation of eco-minded citizens in reducing polluted areas and rehabilitating the coast_Parc national de Guadeloupe
Participation of eco-minded citizens in reducing polluted areas and rehabilitating the coast_Parc national de Guadeloupe Environmentally-friendly agriculture_Parc national de Guadeloupe